Recommendations on the choice of material
Structure and variety of fibres and yarns
Short recommendations on the choice of material:
•For production, where there should be no static electricity we use only natural fibers;
• For human and cargo protection (belay ropes)- nylon products;
• For use in corrosive environments - polyester, polypropylene;
• If you need a light-resistance - polyester, polypropylene.
1. Synthetic (nylon, polypropylene, polyester, etc.)
2. Artificial (acryl, viscose and others)
3. Natural (cotton, jute, sisal, wool, silk natural)
Polypropylene refers to a class of polyolefin fibers. Of synthetic polymers, polyolefin are among the most accessible. Polypropylene fiber has a set of performance properties. Fiber strength in dry and wet condition is sufficiently high of 35 to 80 gf / tex. In the wet strength of polypropylene fibers is not changed. Elongation of polypropylene fiber in the dry and wet the same, 30-40% to 12-15% of high-strength fibers. Elasticity is high enough. Density of polypropylene fiber is the lowest among all the fibers, is 0.91 g/cm3. Products of polypropylene fibers are the easiest. This fiber floats on water. It is highly resistant to abrasion in dry and wet condition. However, it is considerably lower than that of polyamide fibers. Polypropylene has sufficiently low water absorption, moisture absorption of 0.01-0.02%. Polypropylene has the highest rate of capillary rise of moisture, high speed transport of moisture, high thermal insulation properties, high-speed drying. Polypropylene fiber is sound absorbing fiber. Polypropylene fibers have good electrical insulating properties. Polypropylene has high heat resistant and freeze-resistant (holds up to 70 "C) and low temperature resistant. Melting point of polypropylene is quite low at 170" C. Polypropylene has absolute resistance to aggressive media (concentrated acids, alkalis, aqua regia). At room temperature is resistant to organic solvents. Polypropylene is resistant to microbes, fungi, has good hygienic properties, dust and dirt repelling properties. Polypropylene fibers used in the technical field for making nets, ropes, rubber products, filter fabrics for use in aggressive environments, work wear, etc. Also widely used for the production of goods of wide application: carpets, blended yarn, underwear, sportswear, fabrics, knitted fabrics, non-wovens, upholstery fabrics, packing cloth, twine, cordage, etc.
Jute fiber (poop Calcutta hemp) is an exotic textile material, which is imported into Europe from the East. On par with cotton, flax and hemp, jute belongs to the most important vegetable fibers. Size consumption globally jute ranks second after cotton. Jute is one of the fiber (bast) plants of global importance in the stems which contain 20-25 % of valuable fiber having the same strength as hemp. Single fiber jute is much shorter such as flax and hemp fiber. Its maximum length is 4 mm. Jute fiber is very rough, dry, brittle, but strong burst. It has good spinning qualities. Other exclusive property of jute fiber is highly hygroscopic. Hygroscopicity it exceeds the principal vegetable fibers. At high relative humidity jute contains up to 30% moisture, while remaining dry to the touch. Chemically, the jute fiber is significantly different from other vegetable fibers. It contains a lot of lignin and bastin impurities (a substance related lignin, but more flexible). Advantages of jute - cheapness, cleanliness fiber, lightness, high hygroscopic and coverage (for flattening yarn strands retain their shape and in the future).But jute fiber is free from major technical drawbacks: rudeness fiber, fast damage from water, a small lifetime. Natural coloring jute is yellow, reddish and brown colors. The best varieties of jute are light yellow, sometimes grayish-yellow or grayish-silver color and characterized by high uniformity of thickness, good gloss and certain softness. Lower class painted in dark yellow or reddish-brown color, have less shine and more rigid. Eventually jute darkens, loses its gloss and decreases in strength, especially when exposed to moisture. The advantage of jute fiber is that it is most suited to the tree on the content of lignin (a natural high molecular weight polymer that binds the cellulose fibers in wood). Its presence defines the mechanical properties and permeability of wood. It is therefore widely used in jute production Between-joisting sealant insulation for wooden houses. Natural fiber with silky soft sheen, converts interior fits perfectly into a wide range of natural colors. People from ancient times used for manufacturing jute ropes, rough clothing. By the end of the 18th century, new technologies, of jute fiber began to spin wool and weave jute cloth.Due to the structural features, jute fiber - strong enough, but rough and tough, so it cannot get out of yarn for the manufacture of fine fabrics. Due to the hygroscopic properties of jute bags make that perfectly absorb moisture, but do not miss it inside, bagged product. Currently jute is mainly used for the manufacture of ropes, twines, sack packaging various types of furniture and packing tissue to produce the basics of linoleum. Jute burlap is also used for packing more expensive types of textile fibers: linen, cotton, wool. The best varieties of jute cloth and go to the production of tufted carpets jute, also make cheap woven carpets or rugs painted in bright colors. Jute makes mats, bags, shoes, paper, geotextiles. Jute is used to create a composite plastic that retain the ability jute fibers "breathe."
Sisal - a hard, rough natural fiber obtained from the leaves of plants Agava sisolana. Fibers isolated from fresh leaves without any special processing. Elementary sisal fibers have a length of 2-2.5 mm, technical - 0.6-1.5 m; shiny, yellowish color. On the strength of sisal and abaca inferior characterized by greater fragility than hemp. It is used to make ropes, nets, brushes, etc.